c based language





A+. 2001 Similar to APL.

A#. Object oriented, functional programming language, now replaced by Aldor.

Abap. Advanced Business Application Programming. Cobol-like programming language for Sap web application servers.


Action! Compiler design programming language, as Micro-SPL.

ActionScript. 2004. Version of ECMAScript for Flash.

Actor. 1986. Programming language and also a concept for language design (actor oriented).

Ada. 1983.

Afnix. 1998 Functional, formerly Aleph.

Agena. 2009. Inspired from Algol and C.


Aleph. See Afnix.

Algae. Interpreted language for numerical analysis.

Algo. Algebraic programming language.

Algol. 1958. Followed by Algol 60, Algol W (Wirth) and Algol 68. Has inspired Pascal.

Alma-0. Imperative and logical programming language.

Alphard. 1974 Name of the brightest star in Hydra. Pascal-like.

Altran. 1968. Fortran variant.

AmigaE. Language inspired by Ada, C++, Lisp.

Ampl. Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming.

Anubis. 2000. Functional, not ML, language.


Apl. 1962. A Programming Language CompilerFAQ.

AppleScript. 1993. English-like scripting language.

APT. Automatically Programmed Tool. High-level language for numerically controlled machines.

Arduino. A version of the wiring language for the open source USB controller Arduino.

Argos. Synchronous language.

ARS. Abstraction, Reference and Synthesis. An orientation. Inspired programming languages. An ARS++ compiler exists.

AspectJ. Java implementation of Aspect oriented programming. Compiler Development


ATLAS. Several minor languages with this name.

Autocode. 1952. Several versions of this primitive historical language.

AutoIt. Automation language. Originally for scripting Windows applications, now more general.

Averest. Synchronous language, replaced by Quartz.

Awk. 1978. See also gawk, nawk, mawk.

Axiom. Computer Algrebra System, actually a set of tools that uses the A# language.


B. 1969.

Bash. Bourne-Again shell. Actually an interpreter for Bourne shell.

Basic. 1964.

BAL. Assembly language for the IBM 360.

Bcpl. 1966. Basic Combined Programming Language. Compiler. Inspired B which in turn inspired C.




Bistro. 1999 Smaltalk and Java like.


Boo. 2004.

Bourne shell. (sh) 1978. Language of commands for Unix.

Bpel. Business Process Execution Language


C. 1972.

C--. Portable intermediate language. Subset of C.

C++. 1980. The standard is C++ 98 and C++ 09should succeed in 2009.

C#. 2000.

C Shell.

Caché ObjectScript. Procedural language with database functions. Compatible with Mumps.

Caml. Categorical Abstract Machine Language.

Cayenne. Functionnal, near Haskell with Java features.

Cecil. 1992 Near Modula and Objective C.


CFScript. JavaScript part of ColdFusion. See also CFML.


Charity. Functional and categorical programming language.

CHILL. Language for telecommunications. Chill 96 is object oriented and generic.

CHR. Constraint Handling Rules.


ChucK. Multimedia concurrent language.

Cilk. Multi-threaded and concurrent based on C.


Clean. Concurrent Clean.

Clipper. 1984.

CLIPS. C Language Integrated Production System. See Cool.

Clojure. 2007. Lisp-like for the java virtual machine.

CLOS. See Common Lisp.

Clu. Has inspired Ruby.

Cobol. 1959. COmmon Business Oriented Language. Inspired by Flow-matic, Fortran. ANSI standards are Cobol 58, 74, 85 and 2002 object oriented.


Code. Visual parallel programming system.

ColdFusion. 2001. Java compatible combination of CFScript and CFML, used for dynamic web processing.

Comal. 1973.

CIL. Common Intermediate Language.

Common Lisp.

Component Pascal.- See Oberon.

Comit.- List or string processing language




Cowsel. See POP1.

CPL. Predecessor of BCPL.

Csh. See C Shell.





D. 2000.

Databus. See PL/B.

Dark Basic. Language for game creation.

Datalog. Actually a deductive tool using Prolog.

DCL. Digital Command Language. Scripting PL used on Digital computers.

Delphi. 1995. Created by Borland, now at Embarcadero.


Disco. 1992.

Dylan. 1992. DYNamic LANguage. Unlike Perl, only one way to do a thing.


E. See also AmigaE.

Ease. See Csp and Linda.

EcmaScript. 1997.

Edinburgh IMP. See IMP.

Eiffel. 1986.

Elan. 1974


Emacs Lisp.

EGL. Enterprise Generation Language

Epigram. A concurrent P. L.

Erlang. 1998. ERicsson LANguage and also Agner Krarup Erlang. Functional, concurrent PL and runtime.

Escapade. Server-side programming



Euphoria. 1993. Typed scripting interpreted language.

Euler. Successor to Algol 60. Dynamically typed.

Exec. See Rexx.




Fabric. 2010, Cornell. Based on Java and Jif, it provides security on data used and stored.

Factor. 2003.

Fantom. 2005. C-like running on JVM and .NET.




Flow-Matic. 1954.




Forth. 1977. FOuRTH. Stack oriented. Used to command machines including boot of computers.

Fortran. 1957. FORmula TRANSlator. Standard Fortran II (58), IV (61), 66, 77 (Procedural), 90, 95, 2003 (Object oriented). Language for scientific computations. Other dialects are S-Fortran, SFtran, QuickTran, LTRTran, HPF, Co-Array Fortran.

Fortress. Designed for high performance computing.





Gams. General Algebraic Modeling System.

Gml. Game Maker Language.

Go. 2009. Created by Google, is C and Pascal-like. It is concurrent with a garbage collector.



Gosu. 2010. Java-like running on the JVM, provides extended types.


Groovy. Scripting language for Java.


Hal/S. Real-time aerospace programming language


Haskell. 1990. Functional language. Haskell 98 follows. In 2002 version a lazy functional language.Compiler.


HLA. High Level Assembly


HyperTalk. Hypernext and Supercard are Hypercard-like tools.



IAL. 1958.


Icon. 1977-79.

IDL. 1977. Interface Definition Language. A family of descriptives languages. Compiler.



IPL. 1956. Information Processing Language. First in list processing but replaced by Lisp.

Intercal. 1972.


Iswim. 1966.


J. 1990. Is a rework of APL.



Janus. Predecessor of Toontalk.

Java. 1994.

JavaFX Script. 2008.

JavaScript. 1996.


Jif. 2001. Cornell. Java with control on information access.

Join Java. Augmented version of Java.

Joss. 1963. Predecessor of Mumps.


Jovial. Jules Own Version of the International Algorithmic Language.


JSP. See Java.

JScript. See EcmaScript.

Jython. See Python.



Kid. See P-Tac.












Limbo. Concurrent langage, for distributed applications on the Inferno OS. Successor to Alef.


Lingo. Several languages: Macromedia Lingo, Lingo Allegro, Linn Lingo, Lindo Lingo.


Lisp. 1958. LISt Processing.

Logo. 1966-68. Lisp without parenthesis. Learn programming by moving a graphical turtle.Compiler. (.Net)

Lua. 1993. (Moon in portuguese). Scripting C-like language used mainly as extension to C.






M from Microsoft. Modeling language.

M. See Mumps.


MAD. See IAL, Algol.




Mathematica. 1988. Programming language that uses algebraic notation for expressions.


Mercury. 1995. Functional logic programming language. Ported to C, Java, IL (.Net).



Metro. 2008. Design language from Microsoft for Windows Phone, Media Center and mobile devices. (Link on a ppc file readable with LibreOffice).



Miranda. 1989. Functional language, has inspired Haskell.


Mixal. "Mix Assembly Language" for the Mix computer of Donald Knuth.



Modula-2. 1980.

Modula-3. 1989.

Mondrian. Haskell-like.

Mortran. See Fortran.



Mumps. 1967. Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System. Database oriented language.


Napier 88. Persistent language.



NetRexx. 1996.





Noop. 2009. Java-like language designed by Google to syntactically encourage good coding practices and discouraging the worst offenses.

Nu. 2007. Near Lisp and Ruby.




Oberon. 1985-88. (Moon of Uranus). Reflective language. Derived from Modula-2.

Objective-C. 1982. C plus Smalltalk, used in GNUStep environment.

Objective Caml. 1996. ML-derived, functional and imperative language. Extends Caml.

Objective J. 2008. Sur-ensemble de JavaScript utilisant la librairie Ojective-C.

Objective Modula 2. 2006. Combination of Objective-C, Smalltalk and Modula 2.


OCaml. See Objective Caml above.

Occam. (Occam-Pi, occam-π)

Octave. For numerical computation.


OPL. Open (or Organizer) Programming Language.


Orc. A language for distributed and concurrent programming, working through sites. May be used for Web scripting.



Pascal. 1968-71. Name of a french mathematician.


Perl. 1987.

PHP. 1995. Personal Home Page Hypertext Processor. PHP 5 in 2004. PHP 6 in 2007.





PL 11.



PL/C. Subset of PL/1

PL/I. 1964. Programming Language One.


Plankalkül. 1946.











P-Tac. Parallel language.

Python. 1991. Scripting interpreted language.



QuakeC. Version of C for the Quake game.

QML. Or QPL. Set of programming languages for quantum computers.

QML. Declarative language to design user interfaces, similar to JavaFX, for Qt.


R. 1998. Language and environment for statistical computation and graphics. Derived from the S language it is near Scheme.

R++. C++ with rules added.

Rascal. Version of Pascal for kids.

Ratfiv. Version of Ratfor for a computer.

Ratfor. 1975. Version of Fortran.

RC. Rc shell, Plan9 command language ported further to Unix.


Rebol. 1997. Relative Expression Based Object Language. Dynamic language with numerous predefined types.

Refal. 1968. REcursive Functions Algorithmic Language.

Revolution. Version of Hypertalk.

RPG. 1960+ Report Program Generator. Query tool extended in a programming language for IBM. Main versions are RPG II, RPG III, RPG/400, RPG IV.

RPL. Langage for calculators similar to Forth.

Rexx. 1979. REstructured eXtended eXecutor. Designed for IBM OS scripting but ported on other platforms.



RSL. Robot Scripting Language.

Ruby. 1995 Follows a "principle of least surprise", each thing must be intuitive. Scripting, multi-paradigm, object oriented.


S. (S-plus) See Tinn-R. The R framework hold an implementation.



Sail. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language

SAM76. Implementation of Trac.

SAS. Fortran specialized in statistical reports.

Sather. Eiffel-like language.

Scala. 2004.

Scheme. 1975.

Scratch. 2007. Educational language developed by MIT consisting of blocks to be assembled. The same principle was used for the OpenBlocks Java library.

Scriptol. 2001 Object oriented and XML oriented.InterpreterPHP compiler.

Sed. Stream EDitor.

Seed7. 2005.

Self. 1993.

SETL. Has inspired ABC, predecessor of Python.

Short Code. 1949. Precursor of programming languages.

SimsScript. Fortran specialized in mathematical simulations.

Simmunity. Language for Internet based on APL

Simula. 1962.

SISAL. Streams and Iteration in a Single Assignment Language


Slip. Symmetric LIst Processor. Actually an extension to fortran and other programming languages.


Snobol. 1962. Snobol 3 (1965), 4 (1966).

SOAP. Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program, IBM 650 assembly language.

Spitbol. SPeedy ImplemenTation of snobOL. Actually a compiled version of Snobol.



SP/k. Subset of PL/1, used for teaching.



SR. Synchronizing Resources


Standard ML.



SuperX++. 2001. XML language.




T. 1980+ A version of Lisp.

TACL. Tandem Advanced Command Language. Scripting language used by Hewlett-Packard.

Tacpol. Implementation of PL/I, was used by US army.

TADS. Text Adventure Development System. A language to make games.

TAL. Transaction Application Language, cross between C and Pascal used for Tandem computers.

Transcript. Voir Revolution.

Tcl. 1988. Tool Command Language. Tk is the graphical toolkit.

Telcomp. 1965. Derived from Joss, conversationnal language used on PDP computers until 1974. Influenced Mumps.




TI-Basic.Basic-like language for calculators.


Tpu. Scripting programming language for VAX/VMS (not verified).

Trac. 1960+. Text Reckoning And Compiling.

TTCN-3. Testing and Test Control Notation. Formerly: "Tree and Tabular Combined Notation".

Turing. 1982. Pascal-like, derived from Euclid.

Tutor. 1965. CAI programming language.

TXL. 1988. Derived from Turing above.


Ubercode. 2005. Cross between Eiffel and Basic.

Unicon. Unified Extended Dialect of Icon.

UnrealScript. Scripting games.

UrbiScript. Robot programming language.

UML. Unified Modeling Language. Visual programming language.


Verilog HDL. A hardware description language.

VHDL. VHSIC Hardware Description Language.

VDS. Visual DialogScript.

Virt. Pascal-like with Prolog features, for Artificial Intelligence problem solving. Interpreter.

Visual Basic. 1991.

Visual Basic .NET.

VBScript.Visual Basic Script Edition.


Water. XML-embedded programming language.

Whitespace. Actually a joke, an "esoteric" programming language, but with a real interpreter!

Winbatch. Scripting language for Windows.

Wiring. C-like language dedicated to electronics.


XOTcl. Object oriented version of TCL.

XPL. 1967. Derived from PL/I, for compiler writing.

XL. Implements concept programming.



Yorick. Language for scientific calculations and simulations.


Z notation. Visual specification of programs like UML.


ZOPL. (Not verified)

ZUG. (Not verified)

Markup languages and data formats

CFML. ColdFusion Markup Language.

EmotionML. An XML dialect for representing emotions, by the W3C..

HTML. HyperText Markup Language.

PostScript. 1985.

Protocol Buffers. By Google, became open in 2008.

RDF. Resource Description Framework.

SGML. 1969.

SVG. Scalable Vector Graphic.


XAML. eXtensible Application Markup Language.

XBL. eXtensible Bindings Language. For widget creating in Xml based languages.

Xforms. Web graphical interactive user interface.


XML. eXtensible Markup Language.

XUL. XML-based User interface Language.

Query or database oriented languages

Aubit-4GL. See Informix.

D4 or Dataphor. Based on Tutorial D.

Dataflex. 1980. Database programming language.

dBase. programming language.

Hypertalk. 1987. Card language for Apple.

Informix-4GL. 4GL means for fourth generation specialized language. Informix is specialized in databases and reports.

pl/SQL. SQL extension.

SQL. 1987. Structured Query Language.

Tutorial D.

Visual Foxpro. Derived from dBase.

xBaseScript. (xbScript) Clipper database scripting.       




General keyboard shortcuts

CTRL+C (Copy)

CTRL+X (Cut)

CTRL+V (Paste)

CTRL+Z (Undo)

DELETE (Delete)

SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)

CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)

CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)

CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)

CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)

CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)

CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)

SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)

CTRL+A (Select all)

F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)

ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)

ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)

ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)

CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)

ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)

ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)

F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)

F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)

CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)

ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)

Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)

F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)

RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)

LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)

F5 key (Update the active window)

BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

ESC (Cancel the current task)

SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)

CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager)

Dialog box keyboard shortcuts

If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)

CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)

TAB (Move forward through the options)

SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)

ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)

ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)

SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)

Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)

F1 key (Display Help)

F4 key (Display the items in the active list)

BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Microsoft natural keyboard shortcuts

Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)

Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)

Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)

Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)

Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)

Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)

Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)

CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)

Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)

Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)

Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)

Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)

Accessibility keyboard shortcuts

Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)

Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)

Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)

SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)

NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)

Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)

Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts

END (Display the bottom of the active window)

HOME (Display the top of the active window)

NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)

NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)

NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)

LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)

RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)


Shortcut keys for Character Map

After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:

RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)

LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)

UP ARROW (Move up one row)

DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)

PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)

PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)

HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)

END (Move to the end of the line)

CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)

CTRL+END (Move to the last character)

SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)


Microsoft Management Console (MMC) main window keyboard shortcuts

CTRL+O (Open a saved console)

CTRL+N (Open a new console)

CTRL+S (Save the open console)

CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)

CTRL+W (Open a new window)

F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)

ALT+F4 (Close the console)

ALT+A (Display the Action menu)

ALT+V (Display the View menu)

ALT+F (Display the File menu)

ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)


MMC console window keyboard shortcuts

CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)

ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)

SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)

F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)

F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)

CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)

CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)

ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)


Remote desktop connection navigation

CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)

ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)

ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)

ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)

ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)

CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)

ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)

CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)


Microsoft Internet Explorer navigation

CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)

CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)

CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)

CTRL+H (Open the History bar)

CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)

CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)

CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)

CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)

CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)

CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)

CTRL+W (Close the current window)


Other information

Some keyboard shortcuts may not work if StickyKeys is turned on in Accessibility Options.

Some of the Terminal Services client shortcuts that are similar to the shortcuts in Remote Desktop Sharing are not available when you use Remote Assistance in Windows XP Home Edition.

Some of the other Microsoft Knowledge Base articles that have similar information as this article are:

126449  (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/126449/ )Keyboard shortcuts for Windows

255090  (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/255090/ )Keystroke navigation in Windows 2000 Help

Refer to Help for the most current information regarding keyboard navigation and visit the following Microsoft Accessibility Web site for additional information that relates to keyboard shortcuts and keyboard navigation in Windows and other Microsoft products:




Keyboard shortcuts for Windows

Windows system key combinations

F1: Help

CTRL+ESC: Open Start menu

ALT+TAB: Switch between open programs

ALT+F4: Quit program

SHIFT+DELETE: Delete item permanently

Windows Logo+L: Lock the computer (without using CTRL+ALT+DELETE)


Windows program key combinations

CTRL+C: Copy


CTRL+V: Paste

CTRL+Z: Undo

CTRL+B: Bold

CTRL+U: Underline

CTRL+I: Italic

Mouse click/keyboard modifier combinations for shell objects

SHIFT+right click: Displays a shortcut menu containing alternative commands

SHIFT+double click: Runs the alternate default command (the second item on the menu)

ALT+double click: Displays properties

SHIFT+DELETE: Deletes an item immediately without placing it in the Recycle Bin


General keyboard-only commands

F1: Starts Windows Help

F10: Activates menu bar options

SHIFT+F10 Opens a shortcut menu for the selected item (this is the same as right-clicking an object

CTRL+ESC: Opens the Start menu (use the ARROW keys to select an item)

CTRL+ESC or ESC: Selects the Start button (press TAB to select the taskbar, or press SHIFT+F10 for a context menu)

CTRL+SHIFT+ESC: Opens Windows Task Manager

ALT+DOWN ARROW: Opens a drop-down list box

ALT+TAB: Switch to another running program (hold down the ALT key and then press the TAB key to view the task-switching window)

SHIFT: Press and hold down the SHIFT key while you insert a CD-ROM to bypass the automatic-run feature

ALT+SPACE: Displays the main window's System menu (from the System menu, you can restore, move, resize, minimize, maximize, or close the window)

ALT+- (ALT+hyphen): Displays the Multiple Document Interface (MDI) child window's System menu (from the MDI child window's System menu, you can restore, move, resize, minimize, maximize, or close the child window)

CTRL+TAB: Switch to the next child window of a Multiple Document Interface (MDI) program

ALT+underlined letter in menu: Opens the menu

ALT+F4: Closes the current window

CTRL+F4: Closes the current Multiple Document Interface (MDI) window

ALT+F6: Switch between multiple windows in the same program (for example, when the Notepad Find dialog box is displayed, ALT+F6 switches between the Find dialog box and the main Notepad window)


Shell objects and general folder/Windows Explorer shortcuts

For a selected object:

F2: Rename object

F3: Find all files


CTRL+C: Copy

CTRL+V: Paste

SHIFT+DELETE: Delete selection immediately, without moving the item to the Recycle Bin

ALT+ENTER: Open the properties for the selected object

To copy a file

Press and hold down the CTRL key while you drag the file to another folder.

To create a shortcut

Press and hold down CTRL+SHIFT while you drag a file to the desktop or a folder.


General folder/shortcut control

F4: Selects the Go To A Different Folder box and moves down the entries in the box (if the toolbar is active in Windows Explorer)

F5: Refreshes the current window.

F6: Moves among panes in Windows Explorer

CTRL+G: Opens the Go To Folder tool (in Windows 95 Windows Explorer only)

CTRL+Z: Undo the last command

CTRL+A: Select all the items in the current window

BACKSPACE: Switch to the parent folder

SHIFT+click+Close button: For folders, close the current folder plus all parent folders


Windows Explorer tree control

Numeric Keypad *: Expands everything under the current selection

Numeric Keypad +: Expands the current selection

Numeric Keypad -: Collapses the current selection.

RIGHT ARROW: Expands the current selection if it is not expanded, otherwise goes to the first child

LEFT ARROW: Collapses the current selection if it is expanded, otherwise goes to the parent


Properties control

CTRL+TAB/CTRL+SHIFT+TAB: Move through the property tabs


Accessibility shortcuts

Press SHIFT five times: Toggles StickyKeys on and off

Press down and hold the right SHIFT key for eight seconds: Toggles FilterKeys on and off

Press down and hold the NUM LOCK key for five seconds: Toggles ToggleKeys on and off

Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK: Toggles MouseKeys on and off

Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN: Toggles high contrast on and off


Microsoft Natural Keyboard keys

Windows Logo: Start menu

Windows Logo+R: Run dialog box

Windows Logo+M: Minimize all

SHIFT+Windows Logo+M: Undo minimize all

Windows Logo+F1: Help

Windows Logo+E: Windows Explorer

Windows Logo+F: Find files or folders

Windows Logo+D: Minimizes all open windows and displays the desktop

CTRL+Windows Logo+F: Find computer

CTRL+Windows Logo+TAB: Moves focus from Start, to the Quick Launch toolbar, to the system tray (use RIGHT ARROW or LEFT ARROW to move focus to items on the Quick Launch toolbar and the system tray)

Windows Logo+TAB: Cycle through taskbar buttons

Windows Logo+Break: System Properties dialog box

Application key: Displays a shortcut menu for the selected item

Microsoft Natural Keyboard with IntelliType software installed

Windows Logo+L: Log off Windows

Windows Logo+P: Starts Print Manager

Windows Logo+C: Opens Control Panel

Windows Logo+V: Starts Clipboard

Windows Logo+K: Opens Keyboard Properties dialog box

Windows Logo+I: Opens Mouse Properties dialog box

Windows Logo+A: Starts Accessibility Options (if installed)

Windows Logo+SPACEBAR: Displays the list of Microsoft IntelliType shortcut keys

Windows Logo+S: Toggles CAPS LOCK on and off


Dialog box keyboard commands

TAB: Move to the next control in the dialog box

SHIFT+TAB: Move to the previous control in the dialog box

SPACEBAR: If the current control is a button, this clicks the button. If the current control is a check box, this toggles the check box. If the current control is an option, this selects the option.

ENTER: Equivalent to clicking the selected button (the button with the outline)

ESC: Equivalent to clicking the Cancel button

ALT+underlined letter in dialog box item: Move to the corresponding item

Keystroke Navigation in Windows 2000 Help



Navigating Between Panes

To switch between panes in Help, press the F6 key. 

NOTE: Because no highlighting appears to help you understand where you are, it is sometimes difficult to determine which pane you are in. Pressing F6 will switch you between the left and right panes.


Navigating in the Left Pane

While you are in the left pane, use UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW to scroll through topics. You can also type in a new keyword while you are in the left pane. The F6 key considers both sections of the left pane, the keyword listing box and the text box for typing in keywords, as one unit, so you do not need to press any keys to switch between the two.


Navigating in the Right Pane

While you are in the right pane, you can use UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW to scroll. Use the TAB key to move from one hyperlink to another. 

For more information about using keyboard shortcuts to view Help files, type keyboard shortcuts on the Index tab, and select In Help Viewer from the list.


General Help Viewer Keyboard Shortcuts

ALT+SPACEBAR: Displays system menu.

SHIFT+F10: Displays the Help Viewer shortcut menu.

ALT+TAB: Switches between Help Viewer and other open windows.

ALT+O: Displays the Options menu.

ALT+O, T: Hides or shows the navigation pane.

CTRL+TAB: Switches to the next tab stop in the navigation pane.

CTRL+SHIFT+TAB: Switches to the previous tab stop in the navigation pane.

UP ARROW: Moves up one topic in the table of contents, index, or search results list.

DOWN ARROW: Moves down one topic in the table of contents, index, or search results list.

PAGE UP: Moves up one page in the table of contents, index, or search results list.

PAGE DOWN: Moves down one page in the table of contents, index, or search results list.

F6: Switches focus between the navigation pane and the topic pane.

ALT+O, R: Refreshes the topic that appears in the topic pane. 

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW: Scrolls through a topic.

CTRL+HOME: Moves to the beginning of a topic.

CTRL+END: Moves to the end of a topic.

CTRL+A: Highlights all text in the topic pane.

ALT+O, P: Prints a topic.

ALT+O, B: Moves back to the previously viewed topic.

ALT+O, F: Moves forward to the next (previously viewed) topic.

ALT+F4: Closes the Help Viewer.


Keyboard Shortcuts Specific to the Contents Tab

ALT+C: Displays the Contents tab

RIGHT ARROW: Opens a book.

LEFT ARROW: Closes a book.

BACKSPACE: Returns to the previous open book.

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW: Selects a topic.

ENTER: Displays the selected topic.


Keyboard Shortcuts Specific to the Index Tab

ALT+N: Displays the Index tab.

UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW: Selects a keyword in the list.

ALT+D or ENTER: Displays the associated topic.


Keyboard Shortcuts Specific to the Search Tab

ALT+S: Displays the Search tab.

ALT+L: Starts a search.

ALT+D or ENTER: Displays the selected topic.


Keyboard Shortcuts Specific to the Favorites Tab

ALT+I: Displays the Favorites tab.

ALT+A: Adds a topic to the Topics list.

ALT+P: Selects a topic in the Topics list.

ALT+R: Removes a topic from the Topics list.

ALT+D: Displays a topic from the Topics list.



Be default, Windows 2000 hides keyboard shortcut listings for menus in windows and dialog boxes. You can press the ALT key to display the keyboard shortcuts, or you can disable the feature that hides them. To disable this feature:

Click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double-click Display.

Click the Effects tab.

Click to clear the Hide keyboard navigation indicators until I use the Alt key check box, and then clickOK.


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